Fast food is cheap, convenient, and common for the average American; adults consume an average of 11.3% of their daily calories from fast food.1 Fast food has become routine in most American’s lifestyles, including people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is known that most fast foods are high in calories, fat, sugar, and salt because fast-food companies must provide nutritional facts at their stores and online.2 The phosphorus and potassium concentrations in foods are unfortunately not readily available to most patients or practitioners.
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Are There Fast-Food Choices for End-Stage Renal Disease Patients? A Look at Phosphorus and Potassium Content in Common Fast Foods – Journal of Renal Nutrition
### What you need to know Hyponatraemia is the most frequently observed electrolyte abnormality.1 Mild hyponatraemia is associated with cognitive deficits and falls, but in hospitalised patients it is associated with increased mortality.2 In primary care, patients are often found to have hyponatraemia during chronic disease monitoring. This prompts a focused re-evaluation to consider underlying causes such as medication, cancer, or adrenal insufficiency.23 In this article we provide a framework to assess patients with hyponatraemia in primary care. Hyponatraemia is defined as a serum sodium value below the reference range (lower limit is usually 133-135 mmol/L). Hyponatraemia is often subdivided into mild, moderate, severe, and life threatening, using a combination of the presence of associated symptoms and the sodium value.34 There is, however, a poor correlation between symptomatology and serum sodium level, so both must be taken into account when considering urgency of referral and subsequent management. Hyponatraemia may be acute (arbitrarily defined as an onset within 48 hours), chronic (>48 hours), or unknown (where management should be as per chronic). Although it may ap
Sorgente: Hyponatraemia in primary care | The BMJ
Nephrology Madness: Meet the competitors for Collecting Tubule Region’s Principal Cell Group! Click here to view the entire Collecting Tubule Region. Download complete NephMadness brackets in PDF o…
Tra le competenze infemieristiche rientra anche l’esecuzione del prelievo arterioso da arteria radiale, sia in ambiente ospedaliero che domiciliare (A.D.I.) come chiarito nella seduta del 23 giugno del 2005 dal Consiglio Superiore di Sanità a seguito del parere richiesto dall’Ospedale di Latina.